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Hot Reloading

Hot Reloading

Figwheel's dominating feature is a very fast hot reloaded workflow.

When you start a build process with the --build option and your :optimizations level is the default :none, Figwheel starts a hot-reloaded workflow by default.

Working in a hot-reloaded environment can initially take some getting used to, but once you get the hang of it you will experience a noted increase in productivity and enjoyment in your coding.

Among the challenges of working in a hot reloaded environment the biggest one is ensuring that you are aware of the load time side-effects of your code.

Here we are going to cover the tools available to you to tweak the hot reloading behavior of Figwheel.

Configuring which directories to watch

Of all the Figwheel config options the one you will use the most often is the :watch-dirs option. This option determines which directories Figwheel will watch for file changes. While Figwheel will guess which directory to watch based on your :main namespace, it is better to configure this explicitly. Please take a moment to read the :watch-dirs documentation. It is very important to understand that watched directories need to also be in the list of paths on the classpath.

Note that you will normally configure this on a per build basis, for example in our dev.cljs.edn:

^{:watch-dirs ["src"]}
{:main hello-world.core}

Reload a file on every save

Sometimes there is a file that you want to reload every time a file is saved. You can accomplish this by adding :figwheel-always to the namespace of the file.

For example:

(ns ^:figwheel-always hello-world.core)

(println "hello")

There is rarely a need to use this because Figwheel will reload all the files that are depending on the changed file that initiated the reload. However, in some cases you may want to reload a file on every save when it doesn’t depend on your current file.

Using :figwheel-always may make more sense when you disable the reloading of dependents.

Never reload a given file

There are files that once they’ve been loaded you don’t want them to reload again. This can be accomplished by adding :figwheel-no-load to the namespace of the file that you don’t want to be reloaded.

For example:

(ns ^:figwheel-no-load hello-world.core)

(println "hello")

This will prevent hello-world.core from ever being re-loaded. It will load the first time but will not be reloaded after that.

Force a file to be loaded

Figwheel only reloads files that have been required by your application. Sometimes you are working on a file that hasn’t been required by your application and you want to load the file into your application. You could go to the REPL and require it, but that would take your focus out of the file you are editing. You can force a file to be loaded by adding :figwheel-load metadata to the namespace.

For example:

(ns ^:figwheel-load hello-world.core)

(println "hello")

This will force hello-world.core to be loaded for the first time. Once it’s been loaded, you can safely remove the :figwheel-load metadata because the namespace is now noted as a dependency in your client environment and will be reloaded on change like all the other required files.

:figwheel-load is intended to be a development time tool so you can load files that help with your dev process without having to explicitly require them.

Reload hooks

It is common to want to provide callbacks to do some housekeeping before or after a hot reload has occurred.

You can conveniently configure reload callbacks at runtime by first adding :figwheel-hooks metadata to the namespace that contains functions that you want called on reload.

Once the namespace is marked you will then need to add :before-load and :after-load metadata to the functions that you want called on every reload.

Here is an example of using reload hooks:

;; first notify figwheel that this ns has callback defined in it
(ns ^:figwheel-hooks example.core)

(defn ^:before-load my-before-reload-callback []
    (println "BEFORE reload!!!"))

(defn ^:after-load my-after-reload-callback []
    (println "AFTER reload!!!"))

Re-rendering UI after saving a file

Most ClojureScript UI libraries like Reagent, Rum, Re-frame or Om only render when some managed state changes. Most of the time, that state is defined using defonce, so while Figwheel will compile and install new versions of the various components, the DOM will stay the same so the UI library doesn’t have any reason to re-render. This is where the aforementioned reload hooks are useful:

First, don’t forget to add the ^:figwheel-hooks annotation to the namespace:

(ns ^:figwheel-hooks example.core)

Then add an ^:after-load marked function that will render the UI. In most cases you can reuse the “mount” function that rendered the UI for the first time. For example, to get Reagent to rerender you’d write:

;; this is what you call for the first mount
(defn mount []
  (r/render [my-main-component]
            (js/document.getElementById "app")))

;; and this is what figwheel calls after each save
(defn ^:after-load re-render []
  (mount))

;; this only gets called once
(defonce start-up (do (mount) true))

Reloading Clojure code

If Clojure code is on a watched path Figwheel will reload it when it changes. It does this because ClojureScript macros are defined in Clojure not ClojureScript and if we want to pick up changes to our macros as we save them, we need to reload the changed Clojure code and then recompile/reload the ClojureScript files that depend on it.

Reloading changed Clojure code can also be helpful while you work on Clojure files that don’t have macros because Figwheel will report any load time syntax errors in the heads-up display, allowing you to catch errors sooner.

You may want to disable the reloading of Clojure files if your Clojure code has load time side-effects that you don’t want to manage. Another good reason to do this is when reloading Clojure code is causing a mostly ClojureScript application to recompile/reload and thus slowing down your workflow.

Use the :reload-clj-files option to disable the reloading of watched Clojure code.

Setting :reload-clj-files to false will stop .clj files and .cljc files from being reloaded.

If you only want to reload .cljc files set :reload-clj-files to the vector [:cljc]

If you only want to reload .clj files set :reload-clj-files to the vector [:clj]

Figwheel does have limited support for recompiling ClojureScript files which depend on Clojure files. It will only recompile and reload ClojureScript files which are direct dependents of a changed Clojure file.

Disabling hot reloading

There are plenty of situations where you will want to disable ClojureScript hot reloading and go back to reloading the browser after you make changes. This can be done with the :hot-reload-cljs option. By setting :hot-reload-cljs to false you will stop files from being reloaded when you change them.

Setting :hot-reload-cljs to false does not stop files from being recompiled on change and will still allow you to get feedback from the compile process in the heads-up display.

Disable reloading dependent namespaces

Figwheel by default finds all the files that depend on a changed file and reloads them in correct dependency order after reloading the changed file itself.

If you are working in a situation where you don’t want these dependent files reloaded set the :reload-dependents option to false

Disable recompiling of dependent namespaces

So far we have been talking about Figwheel options but there is a ClojureScript compiler option that you should be aware of in how it affects recompiles.

By default the ClojureScript compiler recompiles all the dependents along with a changed file. Depending on the size of your dependency tree and the compile time of all the dependent files this can significantly slow the compile time after each file save.

You can disable the recompiling of dependent namespaces by setting :recompile-dependents in your compile options to false.

As we have been talking about Figwheel options so far in on this page, I want to clarify that this is a ClojureScript compile option and you would place it in your [build-name].cljs.edn file like so:

{:main hello-world.core
 :recompile-dependents false}

The :recompile-dependents CLJS option is completely independent of the :reload-dependents Figwheel option. It can still make sense to reload your dependent files even if they are not recompiled. Load time side effects are the reason. Reloading dependents is very fast compared to recompiling dependents. I recommend that you continue to reload dependent files even if you stop recompiling dependents.

Slowing reloads down

Depending on your environment Figwheel may reload files too quickly. If it does reload too soon it may be reloading the old file before it has changed. This is not an ideal experience.

For example you may be working with a Jekyll site where Jekyll copies all the assets of the site to a _site directory and serves the site from there. Jekyll currently doesn’t copy the files fast enough to beat Figwheel’s reload time.

You can slow down this reload time with the :wait-time-ms option. It defaults to 50 milliseconds.

You can make each reload wait a second after each compile by setting :wait-time-ms to 1000.

Reloads are broadcast

There can be any number of clients (browser tabs) with valid connections to the Figwheel websocket server. For sanity the Figwheel REPL only communicates with one of these clients. However, reloads are broadcast to all clients that are connected to the current build-id.

The reason it is done this way is to facilitate development across multiple clients types. I.E. You want to work on your web app and view the live reloaded changes on your phone, tablet and laptop at the same time.

If you want to disable this you can set the :broadcast-reloads option to false.

Figwheel is careful about which clients are able to receive reload and compile time messages. When you start Figwheel it assigns itself a unique identifier. When a client connects to the Figwheel websocket it can supply this process-id along with the build-id. Figwheel only sends messages to clients with the correct identifiers. This prevents stale clients and clients from with other build ids getting the wrong reload messages and REPL evals.